PHP htmlentities() Function

PHP get_html_translation_table() Function
PHP html_entity_decode() Function

In this article, you will learn how to convert plain characters into HTML entities. The htmlentities() function convert characters into HTML entities.

Note: To perform the reverse operation (HTML entities back to characters), you can use html_entity_decode() function.

htmlentities() function uses translation table. To get the translation table, you can use get_html_tranlsation_table() function.

What is the syntax of the htmlentities() function in php?

stringThe string to convert to HTML elements – Required
flagsOptional. Specifies how to handle quotes, invalid encoding and the used document type.The available quote styles are:ENT_COMPAT – Default. Encodes only double quotesENT_QUOTES – Encodes double and single quotesENT_NOQUOTES – Does not encode any quotesInvalid encoding:ENT_IGNORE – Ignores invalid encoding instead of having the function return an empty string. Should be avoided, as it may have security implications.ENT_SUBSTITUTE – Replaces invalid encoding for a specified character set with a Unicode Replacement Character U+FFFD (UTF-8) or &#FFFD; instead of returning an empty string.ENT_DISALLOWED – Replaces code points that are invalid in the specified doctype with a Unicode Replacement Character U+FFFD (UTF-8) or &#FFFD;Additional flags for specifying the used doctype:ENT_HTML401 – Default. Handle code as HTML 4.01ENT_HTML5 – Handle code as HTML 5ENT_XML1 – Handle code as XML 1ENT_XHTML – Handle code as XHTML
character-setOptional. A string that specifies which character-set to use.Allowed values are:UTF-8 – Default. ASCII compatible multi-byte 8-bit UnicodeISO-8859-1 – Western EuropeanISO-8859-15 – Western European (adds the Euro sign + French and Finnish letters missing in ISO-8859-1)cp866 – DOS-specific Cyrillic charsetcp1251 – Windows-specific Cyrillic charsetcp1252 – Windows specific charset for Western EuropeanKOI8-R – RussianBIG5 – Traditional Chinese, mainly used in TaiwanGB2312 – Simplified Chinese, national standard character setBIG5-HKSCS – Big5 with Hong Kong extensionsShift_JIS – JapaneseEUC-JP – JapaneseMacRoman – Character-set that was used by Mac OSNote: Unrecognized character-sets will be ignored and replaced by ISO-8859-1 in versions prior to PHP 5.4. As of PHP 5.4, it will be ignored an replaced by UTF-8.
double_encodeOptional. A boolean value that specifies whether to encode existing html entities or not.TRUE – Default. Will convert everythingFALSE – Will not encode existing html entities
PHP htmlentities() method

exaples of the htmlentities function

Example 1. In this example, we initialize a string with some HTML entity and then pass it to the htmlentities() method to convert them into HTML elements.

$string = '<a href="">Go to</a>';
echo htmlentities($str);

Example 2. In this example, we declare some strings and tried converting them to HTML elements by using different constants/flags. Run the following example to check the difference between outputs.

$str = "Some scientist said: 'E=MC²'";
echo htmlentities($str, ENT_COMPAT); // It will convert only double quotes
echo "<br>";
echo htmlentities($str, ENT_QUOTES); // It will convert both single and double quotes
echo "<br>";
echo htmlentities($str, ENT_NOQUOTES); // It will not convert the quotes

Example 3. This is another example of characters to HTML entities converter using Western European character set. It convert double quotes (not single quotes) and uses the character-set Western European

$str = "I am Øyvind Åsane. I'm Pakistani.";
echo htmlentities($str, ENT_QUOTES, "UTF-8"); 
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PHP html_entity_decode() Function

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